Parshvanatha Basadi Statue
Record: 5.50 m
Jain Basadi complex in Halebidu, Hassan district consists of three Jain Basadis (Basti or temples) dedicated to the Jain Tirthankars Parshvanatha, Shantinatha and Adinatha. The complex is situated near Kedareshwara temple and Dwarasamudra lake. These temples were constructed in 12th century during the reign of Hoysala Empire along with Kedareshwara temple and Hoysaleswara Temple have been proposed to be listed under UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Archaeological Survey of India has listed all three basadi in the complex in the list of "Must See" Indian Heritage.
Parshvanatha Basadi is notable for its architecture. This temple is famous for the beautiful navaranga halls and exquisite carvings on the lathe turned pillars. these pillars are massive placed to each other, which according to Kurt Bruhn signifies "the many layers karma that ways us down with their black color representing timelessness, like it is for tirthankars". The ceiling of the mandapa and mahamandapa is ornate with the sculpture of yaksha Dharanendra at center.
The temple has a Ardhamandapa ("half hall") and a Mahamandapa ("great hall") with a monolithic 18 feet (5.5 m) idol of Parshvanatha in Kayotsarga posture. Sculptures of yaksha Dharanendra and yakshi Padmavati are present in the mahamantapa. There is a famous image of Padmavati with three hooded cobra over her head and with fruits in three hands and a weapon in forth. This temple is the largest among three Jain basadis in Halebidu. The temple also features niches for idols of the 24 tirthankaras.
Parshvanatha (Pārśvanātha), also known as Parshva (Pārśva) and Paras, was the 23rd of 24 tirthankaras (ford-makers or propagators of dharma) of Jainism. He is one of the earliest tirthankaras who are acknowledged as historical figures. He was the earliest exponent of Karma philosophy in recorded history. The Jain sources place him between the 9th and 8th centuries BC whereas historians point out that he lived in the 8th or 7th century BC. Parshvanatha was born 332 years before Mahavira. He was the spiritual successor of 22nd tirthankara Neminath. He is popularly seen as a propagator and reviver of Jainism. Parshvanatha attained moksha on Mount Sammeta (Madhuban, Jharkhand) in the Ganges basin, an important Jain pilgrimage site. His iconography is notable for the serpent hood over his head, and his worship often includes Dharanendra and Padmavati (Jainism's serpent god and goddess).
According to Jain texts, Parshvanatha was born in Banaras (Varanasi), India. Renouncing worldly life, he founded an ascetic community. Texts of the two major Jain sects (Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras) differ on the teachings of Parshvanatha and Mahavira, and this is a foundation of the dispute between the two sects. The Digambaras believe that there was no difference between the teachings of Parshvanatha and Mahavira. According to the Śvētāmbaras, Mahavira expanded Parshvanatha's first four restraints with his ideas on ahimsa (non-violence) and added the fifth monastic vow (celibacy). Parshvanatha did not require celibacy, and allowed monks to wear simple outer garments. Śvētāmbara texts, such as section 2.15 of the Acharanga Sutra, say that Mahavira's parents were followers of Parshvanatha (linking Mahavira to a preexisting theology as a reformer of Jain mendicant tradition).